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CDC’s Diabetes Prevention Program – Questions and Answers #3

Q. Will Medicare pay for the program participants that are in the pending recognition status?

A. Pending recognition status is the initial application process for CDC diabetes prevention program recognition (DPRP) for the NDPP.  A program with pending recognition is not eligible for Medicare payments.  Medicare will be requiring organizations to have Full CDC Diabetes Prevention Program Recognition to enroll as Medicare Suppliers.  CMS is considering another category of recognition which would be addressed in future rule-making.

Q. It was mentioned that NDPP will only be reimbursed from Medicare for face-to-face groups initially.  Would a live, telephone group be considered face-to-face?

A. No, telephonic delivery is not considered face-to-face.  CMS will not pay for non-face-to-face delivery of the program in 2018.  Future rule-making will address virtual delivery and payment.

Q. How different is the CDC approved DPP from the American Diabetes Association’s Diabetes Self-Management and Education Program?

A. The National DPP and Diabetes Self-Management and Education (DSME) program are different programs altogether.  The National DPP is intended to prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes in populations with prediabetes.  DSME programs provide standardized education and training for populations already living with
diabetes.  DSME programs are recognized by the American Diabetes Association or accredited by the American Association of Diabetes Educators.  Programs that deliver the National DPP are recognized/accredited by the CDC.  DSME programs that also wish to deliver the National DPP must go through the process to become CDC-Recognized (full) and enroll as a Medicare Supplier to deliver the National DPP to Medicare beneficiaries with prediabetes.

Q. Does one need to be a certified diabetes educator (CDE) to be a DPP Lifestyle Coach?

A. One does not have to be a CDE, health care provider, or have certain credentials to become a DPP Lifestyle Coach.  Please see slide 26 for eligibility and skills.

Q. Is the NDPP/MDPP a voluntary program that RDNs engage in?  Is there a financial incentive, billing etc.?

A. The National DPP is the overarching program/framework for implementation of the lifestyle change intervention for those with prediabetes/high risk for type 2 diabetes.  The MDPP refers to the new Part B benefit for the National DPP lifestyle change intervention for Medicare beneficiaries.  The National DPP and MDPP are linked and are not really two separate programs.  Organizations must become part of the National DPP since they must attain full recognition by the CDC to deliver the MDPP benefit to enroll as a Medicare Supplier and be paid by Medicare.  CDC Recognition for DPP programs is voluntary, but is increasingly being used by payers as a requirement for
reimbursement/payment as it is with the MDPP benefit.

Programs with CDC recognition have the ability to offer the National DPP to consumers with private insurance who have benefits and coverage for diabetes prevention programs, and/or to provide the program for a fee in instances where consumers do not have an insurance benefit for diabetes prevention programs.  Not all payers require full recognition to begin offering the program.  Some payers may provide consumer coverage and pay for programs with pending status, but are likely to expect the program to achieve and maintain full recognition.  Depending on the setting, there can be numerous benefits from offering the National DPP, not to mention the benefits of providing a program demonstrated to prevent the onset of disease.  Benefits of offering the National DPP and of becoming a Medicare Supplier of the MDPP were highlighted in Marcy Kyle’s presentation of the webinar.  We recommend that you listen to the recorded webinar provided.

 

About the Author: Joyce Green Pastors, MS, RD, CDE, VAND Member and one of the Virginia Diabetes Council Board Members, participated in a webinar on May 24th, 2017 for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics about diabetes prevention.  We thank them for sharing information from this webinar with us.

CDC’s Diabetes Prevention Program – Questions and Answers #2

Q. Is it possible for someone in private practice to offer the MDPP as a solo practitioner?

A. Solo practitioners would need to start a National DPP and obtain full CDC Recognition to apply to enroll as a Medicare Supplier for the MDPP.  Individuals in private practice can also partner with existing or new programs to provide the lifestyle coaching or serve as a program coordinator as independent contractors.  The program would need to obtain the solo practitioner’s NPI for the coach roster.  Medicare pays the recognized Medicare Supplier, and the program would pay the practitioner providing services for lifestyle coaching.

Q. If someone is <65 and has prediabetes but is not overweight, is he/she eligible for the program (i.e., the MDPP benefit)?

A. No. Medicare beneficiaries with a body mass index (BMI) of < 25 are not eligible to participate in the Medicare DPP benefit.  The Medicare criteria for the Part B benefit is a BMI of ≥ 25 and abnormal blood glucose results.  The Medicare DPP is an important new benefit to help Medicare beneficiaries prevent and/or delay diagnoses of diabetes, yet it does not meet the needs of all populations with prediabetes.

A note about individuals with Medicare Advantage plans or other individuals < 65 with private insurance: It is possible that individuals with private insurance, including Medicare Advantage plans, who have prediabetes and BMI < 25, have a benefit for MNT that may cover a diagnosis of prediabetes. Individual plan benefits and coverage policies determine what services are covered benefits and terms/conditions for coverage. We encourage RDNs and organizations to confirm benefits for MNT in persons with prediabetes.

Q. How do you become a Master Trainer?

A. As of the date of the webinar, there are three organizations (Diabetes Training and Technical Assistance Center at Emory University, American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Diabetes Prevention Support Center of the University of Pittsburgh) that currently provide Master Training.  The minimum required qualifications for application to a Master Trainer Program are:

  • Previous completion of Lifestyle Coach Training from a CDC-recognized national provider
  • Affiliation with an organization that has pending or full CDC recognition
  • Successful delivery and experience with the National Diabetes Prevention Program

Some of the organizations also require the applicant to be a health care professional with a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in a health-related field or if not, substantive experience.  There is an application form to be completed, letters of recommendation from a supervisor or a professional who can provide information about your experience and performance in delivery of a lifestyle change program, and often a phone interview.  Successful applicants attend a 2-day training, similar to the Lifestyle Coach Training Program, to become qualified to become a Master Trainer.  The fees range from $1500-$1650 which includes the training and the membership/agreement fee for post-training technical assistance and licensing of the training materials.  Master Trainers can train lifestyle coaches in their own and partner organizations.

Q. Can RDNs in private practice order blood tests for diabetes screening?

A. The Academy recommends that RDNs refer to the Comprehensive Scope of Practice Resource for the RDN which can guide the RDN to the resources and options that can be used to evaluate whether the RDN can safely and effectively provide an expanded practice skill and advance individual practice.  Case Study: Initiating Orders for Nutrition-Related Laboratory Tests for RDNs Practicing in Hospital, Ambulatory and Private Practice Settings Academy Store: http://www.eatrightstore.org/product/AE37FD36-0C17-422C-91F6-E3C9DC845986

Quality Management Webpage: http://www.eatrightpro.org/resource/practice/quality-management/scope-of-practice/scope-of-practice-terms-studies-and-tips

Quality Management Short Link: http://www.eatrightpro.org/scope.  Scroll down to Case Studies on the Scope Webpage.

Q. How long will Medicare pay for maintenance sessions?

A. Beneficiaries will have access to ongoing maintenance sessions after the MDPP core benefit (1st 12 months of the program).  At the time of the webinar CMS had not placed any limits on how long CMS will pay for ongoing maintenance sessions.  Eligible beneficiaries will have access to ongoing maintenance sessions after the MDPP core benefit if they achieve and maintain the required minimum weight loss of 5%.  CMS is defining maintenance of weight loss, which allows a beneficiary to access ongoing maintenance sessions, as achieving the required minimum weight loss from baseline weight at any point during the previous 3 months of the core maintenance or the ongoing maintenance sessions.  CMS will propose a limit on the duration of CMS payments for ongoing maintenance sessions in future rulemaking.  As a reminder, there are six monthly core maintenance sessions in months 6 through 12 of the year-long program in which beneficiaries are eligible to participate, regardless of weight loss, but CMS has not issued final rules about payment for the core maintenance component or any component of the MDPP benefit.

 

About the Author: Joyce Green Pastors, MS, RD, CDE, VAND Member and one of the Virginia Diabetes Council Board Members, participated in a webinar on May 24th, 2017 for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics about diabetes prevention.  We thank them for sharing information from this webinar with us.

CDC’s Diabetes Prevention Program Questions and Answers

Do you have questions regarding the National Diabetes Prevention Program?  Over the next few weeks we will feature posts that address questions about the program.

First let’s begin by defining the terms.

Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) was the research trial led by the National Institutes of Health with financial and scientific expertise from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and others.

National Diabetes Prevention Program (National DPP) is the overarching program/framework for implementation of the lifestyle change intervention for those with prediabetes/high risk for type 2 diabetes.

The Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program (MDPP) refers to the new Medicare Part B benefit for the National DPP lifestyle change intervention for eligible Medicare beneficiaries.

Q. What is the difference between the National Diabetes Prevention Program and the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program?

A. The National Diabetes Prevention Program (National DPP) is the overarching program/framework for implementation of the lifestyle change intervention for those with prediabetes/high risk for type 2 diabetes.  The Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program (MDPP) refers to the new Medicare Part B benefit offering coverage for the National DPP lifestyle change intervention for eligible Medicare beneficiaries.  Programs must have recognition by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to deliver the MDPP benefit.

Q. Is it mandatory for lifestyle groups to be certified for program accreditation and Medicare reimbursement?

A. Medicare will require NDPP programs to have full CDC recognition (administered by the CDC Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program, part of the National DPP) to be eligible to enroll in Medicare as Medicare Suppliers.  CMS may consider another category of recognition that would be addressed in future rulemaking.

Q. Can an RDN apply for a National Provider Identifier (NPI) number even if not planning to use it quite yet?  Does
it require renewal?

A. A registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) can apply for an NPI at any point in time, whether for current or future use.  The Academy recommends that every RDN have an NPI regardless of employment status or place of work, or whether the NPI is being used by the RDN or an organization for billing purposes.  NPIs are one way to demonstrate RDN workforce availability to payers including Medicare, private payers, and state Medicaid agencies.  An NPI does not require renewal and it never expires.  Nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs) and other nutrition and dietetics practitioners can also obtain NPIs at any time.  There is a specific NPI taxonomy category for “dietetic technician, registered.”  Nutrition and dietetics practitioners who are not RDNs or NDTRs can select “Health Educator” for the taxonomy.

For more information on how to obtain an NPI, visit http://www.eatrightpro.org/resource/practice/getting-paid/getting-started-with-payment/national-provider-identifier-faqs

Q. I’m unclear as to whether each health coach needs an individual NPI or if the program can use the hospital NPI?

A. Each Lifestyle coach who delivers the NDPP to Medicare beneficiaries under the new Medicare benefit (MDPP) will need an individual NPI.  Programs that apply to enroll as Medicare Suppliers of the MDPP are required to submit and maintain a coach roster with NPI numbers for all coaches.  Individual coach NPIs will not be used forbilling purposes in the MDPP.  The Medicare Supplier (must be a program) will use the program NPI to submit claims to CMS.

Q. When do you apply for the MDPP NPI number?

A. Organizations who want to deliver the MDPP benefit will need to provide a list of coaches and their NPIs when they apply to enroll as a Medicare Supplier. Organizations can apply for Medicare Supplier enrollment if the NDPP program has already obtained full CDC Recognition.  https://nccd.cdc.gov/ddt_dprp/registry.aspx.

About the Author: Joyce Green Pastors, MS, RD, CDE, VAND Member and one of the Virginia Diabetes Council Board Members, participated in a webinar on May 24th, 2017 for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics about diabetes prevention.  We thank them for sharing information from this webinar with us.

Obesity Advocacy Day 2017

On Monday, February 27, 20107 the Obesity Care Advocacy Network (OCAN) and dietitians from across the United States met in Washington, D.C. to meet with members of Congress to advocate for the Treat and Reduce Obesity Act (TROA) of 2017 and the establishment of a National Obesity Care Week (NOCW).  Obesity Advocacy Day attendees were divided into groups and traveled to various legislative offices to meet with Congress men and women to discuss and advocate for the TROA.  The TROA consists of two parts which aim to:

  • Enhance Medicare beneficiaries’ access to additional qualified healthcare professionals that are best suited to provide Intensive Behavioral Therapy (IBT)
  • Allow Medicare Part D to cover FDA-approved obesity drugs

Currently, CMS coverage for IBT is limited to being provided by a primary care provider in the primary care setting.  Because of this narrow coverage, nutrition professionals, endocrinologists, bariatric physicians, psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, and other specialists are unable to be reimbursed for providing these services.  When Congress enacted Medicare Part D, (the Medicare prescription drug program), obesity was not recognized as a disease, but rather a lifestyle condition.  Additionally, there were no widely-accepted FDA-approved weight loss medications on the market.  It was for these reasons that pharmaceutical weight loss aids were not covered under Medicare Part D.  Due to Medicare’s current limitation on providers of IBT and Medicare Part D’s lack of coverage on pharmaceutical weight loss aids, the TROA aims to change these aspects of Medicare coverage.  Lastly, the establishment of a NOCW aims to elevate societal awareness of obesity and weight bias as well as facilitate a shift to science-based treatment for those living with obesity.  The act proclaims the week of October 29-November 4 as National Obesity Care Week.

 

About the author: Katie Couch

Katie is currently a dietetic intern at the University of Virginia Health System. She completed her undergraduate degree in Nutrition Science and Master’s degree in Nutrition Science from Auburn University.  She enjoys cooking, reading, and exploring her new city of Charlottesville!

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eat to Boost Immunity: Tip # 5

nutr-and-immune-health-tip-5-graphic

Here is the final nutrition strategy that will help boost your immune health.  Along with the previous four:

  1. Consume a diet that is adequate in overall calories, balanced among carbohydrate, protein and fat and rich in nutrient-dense foods.
  2. Swap unhealthy (saturated) fats in your diet for healthy (unsaturated) fats, which are both anti-inflammatory and immune boosting.
  3. Ensure adequate vitamin D intake for optimal immune strength.
  4. Consume foods with naturally occurring probiotics to improve gut health.

Flavor your foods with healthy herbs & spices

Many of the herbs and spices that we use to flavor our foods also have potent anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and immune boosting properties. Garlic, onion, turmeric, ginger and cinnamon are a few herbs and spices that top the list.

  • Garlic is not only known for it’s unique and pungent flavor contribution to many dishes, but also it’s role as a potent anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and cancer preventative food. Garlic’s numerous beneficial immune benefits are due to sulfur compounds and being a quality source of vitamin C, vitamin B6, selenium and manganese.

 

  • Onions are not only a quality source of Vitamin C, but also one of the richest sources of flavonoids, especially quercetin, which has been shown to inhibit inflammation. Onions also contain the trace mineral selenium, which helps to initiate the body’s immune response.

 

  • Turmeric, commonly found in curry spices and dishes, contains curcumin which gives the spice its distinct orange-yellow color. Curcumin is traditionally known for its anti-inflammatory effects but in recent decades has also been shown to be a potent immune-modulating agent. Pair with black pepper to enhance the absorption of curcumin.

 

  • Ginger, more commonly known for its anti-nausea benefits, also boosts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity within the body. Ginger is best consumed uncooked in it’s natural form, so aim to buy ginger whole and use a grater to include it in your dishes where possible.

 

  • Cinnamon is another spice that is not only rich in antioxidants, but also a quality source of manganese, calcium, fiber and iron. The essential oils found within cinnamon have also been shown to boost the immune system since they have antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties.

Wintertime doesn’t have to inevitably spell out cold and flu season. To boost your immune system and decrease your chances of getting sick aim to follow some of the tips above, and don’t forget to drink plenty of water and aim to get plenty of sleep each day too!

About the Author

Kristen Chang
Kristen Chang

Kristen Chang is a Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics and triathlete, currently serving as the President of the Southwest Virginia Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. She works as the owner of the nutrition private practice Real Food For Fuel, LLC. and adjunct instructor for Virginia Tech and Radford University. Kristen lives in Blacksburg, VA with her husband, Jordan, and dogs Kenya and Sunny.

Eat to Boost Immunity: Tip # 4

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Here is the fourth nutritional strategy that you can share with clients to help ensure optimal immune health during these cold winter months.

Consume foods with naturally occurring probiotics to improve gut health

New and emerging research regarding gut bacteria shows that our gut microbiome has a direct impact on brain and immune health.

While a probiotic supplement is one way to build up healthy bacteria within the gut, first start by incorporating foods with natural probiotics into your daily regime.

These include: yogurts and aged cheeses, kefir, sauerkraut, miso, tempeh, kimchi, sour pickles and kombucha.

By consuming 2-3 probiotic-rich foods daily, you are feeding the healthy bacteria in your gut that in turn can lend to a stronger immune system.

Kristen Chang
Kristen Chang

Kristen Chang is a Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics and triathlete, currently serving as the President of the Southwest Virginia Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics. She works as the owner of the nutrition private practice Real Food For Fuel, LLC and adjunct instructor for Virginia Tech and Radford University. Kristen lives in Blacksburg, VA with her husband, Jordan, and dogs Kenya and Sunny.

Eat to Boost Immunity: Tip # 3

Nutr and Immune Health Tip 3 graphic

We are still in the thick of the flu season.  Immune health is very important during this time.  I’m back again to provide you with yet another nutritional strategy that supports the immune system.

Ensure adequate Vitamin D intake for optimal immune strength.

While we are able to naturally synthesize Vitamin D through sun exposure, it’s not uncommon for Vitamin D levels to drop off in the winter when colder whether forces us inside more.

Low Vitamin D levels have a direct effect not only on bone health, but immune health as well, and it’s never a bad idea to have your levels checked by your primary care physician.

To ensure you’re getting enough Vitamin D through diet, aim to consume a few of these foods daily: Cod Liver Oil, oily fish (trout, salmon, swordfish, mackerel, tuna and sardines), mushrooms, fortified cereals, tofu, dairy products, pork and eggs.

About the Author:

Kristen Chang
Kristen Chang

Kristen Chang, MS, RDN, CSSD is the current President of the Southwest Virginia Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, an adjunct instructor for Virginia Tech and Radford University and the owner of the nutrition private practice, Real Food For Fuel, LLC.

Eat to Boost Immunity: Tip # 2

Nutr and Immune Health Tip 2 graphic

As a sports dietitian, I am often counseling athletes on the importance of a healthy diet in maintaining a strong immune system to ensure consistent training year round.  Today, I am going to share a second nutritional strategy that has been shown to boost immune health.

Swap unhealthy (saturated) fats in your diet for healthy (unsaturated) fats, which are both anti-inflammatory and immune boosting.

Instead of aiming for low-fat foods, aim to replace sources of saturated fat in your diet for healthy fats, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which support hormone production and help fight inflammation in order to keep our immune system strong.

More specifically, essential fatty acids (omega-3’s and Omega-6’s) play a role in the production of eicosanoids, a class of chemical messengers involved in your body’s immune and inflammatory response.

These healthy fats can be found in avocadoes, nuts (especially walnuts!), sunflower, sesame and pumpkin seeds, olives, flaxseed and wheat germ, chia seeds and fatty fish varieties.

About the Author

Kristen Chang
Kristen Chang

Kristen Chang, MS, RDN, CSSD is the current President of the Southwest Virginia Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, an adjunct instructor for Virginia Tech and Radford University and the owner of the nutrition private practice, Real Food For Fuel, LLC.

Eat to Boost Immunity: Tip #1

Nutr and Immune Health Tip 1 graphic

With the arrival of colder temperatures in the winter months also arrives cold and flu season. While it may seem like getting sick at some point is inevitable, there are many nutritional strategies that can be applied (year round, really!) to boost the strength of your immune system and decrease your chances.  Today, I am going to share the first of many top nutritional strategies that have been show to boost immune health.

 Consume a diet that is adequate in overall calories, balanced among the all three macronutrients, and rich in nutrient dense foods.

Chronic calorie deficit over time, whether through failure to meet needs or intentional dieting for weight loss, can lead to impaired immune health in that it decreases the energy available to support normal bodily functions. Calorie deficit without careful consideration of diet quality can also lead to insufficient intake of vitamins and minerals related to immune health, including vitamins C, E, B6, A and D, Folate, Iron, Selenium and Zinc.

Aim to include not only fruits and vegetables with each meal, but also quality lean proteins and whole grains too. A few high antioxidant foods to consider in boosting immune health include grapes, blueberries, raspberries and strawberries, nuts and seeds, any dark leafy greens, sweet potatoes and other orange vegetables, beans, fish and whole grains!

About the Author

Kristen Chang
Kristen Chang

Kristen Chang, MS, RDN, CSSD is the current current President of the Southwest Virginia Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, an adjunct instructor for Virginia Tech and Radford University and the owner of the nutrition private practice, Real Food For Fuel, LLC.

Your Dietetics Career Plan

Your Dietetics Career Plan

Its best to think of a career plan as a continually evolving structure.  Our perspective and goals change as we gain experience over time. We need to continually evaluate our values and skills. Developing a career plan every couple of years is a way to explore available options and make desirable life changes.

The following is a summary of the five main components of a career plan.

1.      A self-assessment

We need to learn about ourselves and the ways in which we have changed over time. Developing a new career plan allows for this by beginning with a self-assessment. Answer questions such as:

  •     Which aspects of dietetics/nutrition interest me the most?
  •     What skills have I acquired over the past few years?
  •     What do I value most in my life?
  •     How could my career address my top values?

2.      Determining career goals

At this step, we will determine 2 to 4 career goals. This is an extension of our self-assessment and includes visualizing the future. Where do we want to be in 2 years from now? 5 years from now? and 10 years from now?

One easy way to do this is to imagine a typical day in our future.

  • How will I describe to friends and family what I do for a living?
  • Who will I work with?
  • How much time will I spend working?
  • What will my role be at work? (Will I be an administrator or an employee, a leader or a follower, overseeing or enacting?)
  • What will I love about my job?
  • How much money will I earn? (What kind of lifestyle will I be able to afford?)
  • How much responsibility will I have? (A lot, moderate amounts, or very little?)

Completing a small job search is helpful in expanding our perspective. Even if we are not currently looking for a job, this kind of search helps us recognize unique opportunities. After contemplation about the information we collected, we can develop our career goals. Here are some examples:

·        Career Goal 1: My career will allow for work-life balance in that I will never work more than 40 hours per week, have flexibility to tend to family, have all major holidays off, and have 4 or more weeks of paid vacation per year.

·        Career Goal 2: I will specialize in diabetes management. 

3.      A gap analysis

After we determine our goals, we need to determine the gap between ‘where we are’ and ‘where we want to be.’ This will help us determine education, experience, and skills needed to meet our goals.

  • Complete an online search and interview a few role models to determine the education, experience, and skill criteria needed to meet your goals.
  • Rate your current level for each of these criteria.

Here is an example: I want to be an expert in diabetes management.

a.      I need formal/certification training, 1500 hours of experience working with patients with diabetes, and honed nutrition counseling skills.

b.      I do not have formal training (CDE). I have ~50 hours of experience. I am new to nutrition counseling and would rate my skills as low.

4.      Identifying needs

Apply the results from the gap analysis to identify training and experience needs. We may need more exposure to a particular clientele. We may need more education. We may need more leadership experience or to hone our communication skills. Review your gap analysis and identify at least 3 needs to work on.

Remember that we need support in order to grow. Some of our needs will include time, monetary support, and social support. Always ask employers for assistance to improve your professional expertise. Presenting them with a plan and a list of ways in which they will benefit are useful negotiating tactics.

5.      Developing a plan

Finally, we will use all the gathered information to develop a plan of action. Now that we know our needs, we will find ways to meet those needs. We will research the steps it takes, the resources, and the pathway that is best suited for us.

Answer the following questions to help develop a plan.

  • How do I get certified as a diabetes educator?
  • How much does it cost? How much time does it take? What steps are required?
  • Where can I find the time, money, and self-guided experience to complete the certification?
  • Who will support me during my growth period?
  • How can I include this in my CDR Personal Development Plan?

Start planning today to obtain your dream career tomorrow!

 

Devon L Golem PhD RD

 

Devon L. Golem, PhD, RD is the founder of the Institute of Continuing Education for Nutrition Professionals. She has spent over a decade providing education and career guidance to nutrition students, interns, and professionals.

Connect with Devon on LinkedIn and ask her for a career plan template.